Chronic pancreatitis: pancreatic cancer risk factors
PDF (Русский)

Keywords

chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, risk, research, lifestyle factors

How to Cite

Gubergrits, N. B., Byelyayeva, N. V., Tsys, A. V., Mozhyna, T. L., Lukashevich, G. M., & Fomenko, P. G. (2020). Chronic pancreatitis: pancreatic cancer risk factors. Herald of Pancreatic Club, 48(3), 6-12. https://doi.org/10.33149/vkp.2020.03.01

Abstract views: 12
PDF Downloads: 5

Abstract

The article discusses the known risk factors for pancreatic cancer (PC) in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), starting with the hypothesis expressed by the German pathologist Rudolph Virchow at the end of the 19th century, to modern worldviews. The difficulties of timely PC diagnosis and the short life expectancy of patients with CP who have PC are noted. According to modern concepts, the transformation of the inflammatory process in the pancreatic tissue into a neoplastic formation is caused not only by the features of the ordinary diet and well-known bad habits, but also by the effects of a number of chemical compounds, the presence of a concomitant pathology and genetic predisposition. The article shows the average period of time required for the neoplastic transformation of acinar or ductal epithelial cells in a state of chronic inflammation. The results of clinical studies and meta-analysis showing the correlation between different types of CP and the development of PC are presented. It is emphasized that the total risk of PC in patients with confirmed CP is less than 5%, which indirectly indicates a lack of sensitivity and specificity of non-invasive procedures in screening for neoplastic pancreatic lesions. The probability of developing PC in patients with hereditary pancreatitis, carriers of the mutant K-ras gene, as well as in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis is considered. Emphasis is placed on the need for further development of biological tests and biomarkers, which make it possible to differentiate CP and PC. The exclusion of known risk factors in patients with recurrent attacks of acute pancreatitis, CP will reduce the risk and prevent the occurrence of PC.

https://doi.org/10.33149/vkp.2020.03.01
PDF (Русский)

References

1. Alsamarrai A., Das S. L., Windsor J. A., Petrov M. S. Factors that affect risk for pancreatic disease in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2014. Vol. 12, No 10. P. 1635–1644.
2. Arvanitakis M., Van Laethem J. L., Parma J., et al. Predictive factors for pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis in association with K-ras gene mutation. Endoscopy. 2004. Vol. 36. P. 535542.
3. Asbun H. J., Conlon K., Fernandez-Cruz L., et al. When to perform a pancreatoduodenectomy in the absence of positive histology? A consensus statement by the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery. Surgery. 2014. Vol. 155, No 5. P. 887–892.
4. Bang U. C., Benfield T., Hyldstrup L., Bendtsen F., et al. Mortality, cancer, and comorbidities associated with chronic pancreatitis: a Danish nationwide matched-cohort study. Gastroenterology. 2014. Vol. 146, No 4. P. 989–994.
5. Bansal P., Sonnenberg A. Pancreatitis is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterology. 1995. Vol. 109, No 1. P. 247–251.
6. Bracci P. M., Wang F., Hassan M. M., Gupta S., Li D., Holly E. A. Cancer Causes Control. Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in two large pooled case-control studies. 2009. Vol. 20, No 9. P. 1723–1731.
7. Bueno de Mesquita H. B., Maisonneuve P., Moerman C. J., Walker A. M. Aspects of medical history and exocrine carcinoma of the pancreas: a population-based case-control study in The Netherlands. Int. J. Cancer. 1992. Vol. 19. Vol. 52, No 1. P. 17–23.
8. Burch G. E., Ansari A. Chronic alcoholism and carcinoma of the pancreas. A correlative hypothesis. Arch. Intern Med. 1968. Vol. 122, No 3. P. 273–275.
9. Chari S. T., Mohan V., Pitchumoni C. S., Viswanathan M., Madanagopalan N., Lowenfels A. B. Risk of pancreatic carcinoma in tropical calcifying pancreatitis: an epidemiologic study. Pancreas. 1994. Vol. 9, No 1. P. 62–66.
10. Crnogorac-Jurcevic T., Gangeswaran R., Bhakta V., et al. Proteomic analysis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2005. Vol. 129. P. 14541463.
11. Duell E. J., Lucenteforte E., Olson S. H., et al. Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Ann. Oncol. 2012. Vol. 23, No 11. P. 2964–2970.
12. Farrow D. C., Davis S. Risk of pancreatic cancer in relation to medical history and the use of tobacco, alcohol and coffee. Int. J. Cancer. 1990. Vol. 45, No 5. P. 816-820.
13. Fernandez E., La Vecchia C., Porta M., Negri E., d’Avanzo B., Boyle P. Pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Pancreas. 1995. Vol. 11, No 2. P. 185-189.
14. Furuya N., Kawa S., Akamatsu T., Furihata K. Long-term follow-up of patients with chronic pancreatitis and K-ras gen mutation detected in pancreatic juice. Gastroenterology. 1997. Vol. 113. P. 593598.
15. Gold E. B., Gordis L., Diener M. D., Seltser R., Boitnott J. K., Bynum T. E., Hutcheon D. F. Diet and other risk factors for cancer of the pancreas. Cancer. 1985. Vol. 55, No 2. P. 460-467.
16. Goldacre M. J., Wotton C. J., Yeates D., Seagroatt V., Collier J. Liver cirrhosis, other liver diseases, pancreatitis and subsequent cancer: record linkage study. Eur. J. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008. Vol. 20, No 5. P. 384–392.
17. Hart P. A., Zen Y., Chari S. T. Recent advances in autoimmune pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2015. Vol. 149, No 1. P. 39–51.
18. Howes N., Lerch M. M., Greenhalf W., Stocken D. D., Ellis I., et al. European Registry of Hereditary Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer (EUROPAC). Clinical and genetic characteristics of hereditary pancreatitis in Europe. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2004. Vol. 2, No 3. P. 252–261.
19. Jain M., Howe G. R., St Louis P., Miller A. B. Coffee and alcohol as determinants of risk of pancreas cancer: a case-control study from Toronto. Int. J. Cancer. 1991. Vol. 47, No 3. P. 384-389.
20. Kalapothaki V., Tzonou A., Hsieh C. C., Karakatsani A., et al. Nutrient intake and cancer of the pancreas: a case-control study in Athens, Greece. Cancer Causes Control. 1993. Vol. 4, No 4. P. 383–389.
21. Karlson B. M., Ekbom A., Josefsson S., McLaughlin J. K., et al. The risk of pancreatic cancer following pancreatitis: an association due to confounding? Gastroenterology. 1997. Vol. 113, No 2. P. 587–592.
22. Lin R. S., Kessler I. I. A multifactorial model for pancreatic cancer in man. Epidemiologic evidence. JAMA. 1981. Vol. 245, No 2. P. 147–152.
23. Lohr J. M., Heinemann V., Friess H. M. Pancreatic Cancer. Bremen: UNI-MED Verlag AG, 2005. 160 p.
24. Lohr M., Kloppel G., Maisonneuve P., et al. Frequency of K-ras mutations in pancreatic intraductal neoplasias associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis: a meta-analysis. Neoplasia. 2005. Vol. 7. P. 17–23.
25. Lowenfels A. B., Maisonneuve P. Chronic pancreatitis: risk factors in cancer. In: The Pancreas: An Integrated Textbook of Basic Science, Medicine and Surgery. Ed. H. G. Beger, A. L. Warshaw, R. H. Hruban et al. Oxford: Willey Blackwell. 2018. P. 417–420.
26. Lowenfels A. B., Maisonneuve P. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 2005. Vol. 95. P. 649–656.
27. Lowenfels A. B., Maisonneuve P., Cavallini G., Ammann R. W., et al. Pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. International Pancreatitis Study Group. N. Engl J. Med. 1993. Vol. 328, No 20. P. 1433–1437.
28. Lowenfels A. B., Maisonneuve P., DiMagno E. P., Elitsur Y., et al. Hereditary pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. International Hereditary Pancreatitis Study Group. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1997. Vol. 89, No 6. P. 442–446.
29. Mack T. M., Yu M. C., Hanisch R., Henderson B. E. Pancreas cancer and smoking, beverage consumption, and past medical history. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1986. Vol. 76, No 1. P. 49–60.
30. Maisonneuve Р., FitzSimmons S. C., Neglia J. P., et al. Cancer risk in nontransplanted and transplanted cystic fibrosis: a 10-year study. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2003. Vol. 95. P. 381–387.
31. Malats N., Casals T., Porta M., et al. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) DeltaF508 mutation and ST allele in patients with chronic pancreatitis and exocrine pancreatic cancer. PANKRAS II Study Group. Gut. 2001. Vol. 48. P. 70–74.
32. Malka D., Hammel P., Maire F., Rufat P., Madeira I., et al. Risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in chronic pancreatitis. Gut. 2002. Vol. 51, No 6. P. 849–852.
33. McWilliams R., Highsmith W. E., Rabe K. G., et al. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene carrier status is a risk factor for young onset pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Gut. 2005. Vol. 54. P. 1661–1662.
34. Neglia J. P., FitzSimmons S. C., Maisonneuve P., et al. The risk of cancer among patients with cystic fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis and Cancer Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995. Vol. 332. P. 494–499.
35. Otsuki M. Chronic pancreatitis in Japan: epidemiology, prognosis, diagnostic criteria, and future problems. J. Gastroenterol. 2003. Vol. 38. P. 315–326.
36. Pedrazzoli S., Pasquali C., Guzzinati S., Berselli M., Sperti C. Survival rates and cause of death in 174 patients with chronic pancreatitis. J. Gastrointest. Surg. 2008. Vol. 12, No 11. P. 1930–1937.
37. Raimondi S., Lowenfels A. B., Morselli-Labate A. M., Maisonneuve P., Pezzilli R. Pancreatic cancer in chronic pancreatitis: aetiology, incidence, and early detection. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2010. Vol. 24, No 3. P. 349–358.
38. Rebours V., Boutron-Ruault M. C., Schnee M., Férec C., et al. Risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in patients with hereditary pancreatitis: a national exhaustive series. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2008. Vol. 103, No 1. P. 111–119.
39. Rocca G., Gaia E., Iuliano R., Caselle M. T., Rocca N., et al. Increased incidence of cancer in chronic pancreatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1987. Vol. 9, No 2. P. 175–179.
40. Tong G. X., Geng Q. Q., Chai J., et al. Association between pancreatitis and subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer: a systematic review of epidemiological studies. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2014. Vol. 15, No 12. P. 5029–5034.
41. Ulrich C. D. Consensus Committees of the European Registry of Hereditary Pancreatic Diseases, Midwest Multi-Center Pancreatic Study Group, International Association of Pancreatology. Pancreatic cancer in hereditary pancreatitis: consensus guidelines for prevention, screening and treatment. Pancreatology. 2001. Vol. 1, No 5. P. 416–422.
42. Wynder E. L., Mabuchi K., Maruchi N., Fortner J. G. A case control study of cancer of the pancreas. Cancer. 1973. Vol. 1, No 3. P. 641–648.
43. Yadav D., Lowenfels A. B. The epidemiology of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterology. 2013. Vol. 144, No 6. P. 1252–1261.