Hemostasis disturbances in patients with acute pancreatitis and the ways of their correction
PDF (Українська)
DOCX

Keywords

acute pancreatitis, platelets, coagulation, fibrinolysis, anticoagulants

How to Cite

ChuklinS. М., Pidhirnyi, B. Y., & Chuklin, S. S. (2017). Hemostasis disturbances in patients with acute pancreatitis and the ways of their correction. Herald of Pancreatic Club, 35(2), 11-19. https://doi.org/10.33149/vkp.2017.02.02

Abstract views: 86
PDF Downloads: 137 PDF Downloads: 57

Abstract

The literature review imposed the experimental and clinical data on the changes in the hemostatic system at acute pancreatitis. The reasons of hemostatic disorders and possible ways of its correction were identified. Disturbance in the coagulation is a feature at acute pancreatitis and is associated with disease severity. The results of experimental studies in animals and clinical studies suggest that modulation of hemostasis can provide a therapeutic target for the treatment of this disease. Inhibition of the coagulation cascade can prevent intravascular coagulation and inflammation in the pancreas and distant organs, thereby preventing systemic complications in patients with acute pancreatitis.

https://doi.org/10.33149/vkp.2017.02.02
PDF (Українська)
DOCX

References

Джарар Р. М. Коррекция системы гемостаза в лечении ранней стадии острого панкреатита / Р. М. Джарар, Е. А. Корымасов, Ю. В. Горбунов // Новости хирургии. – 2011. – Т. 19, № 2. – С. 43–49.

Значимость тромбоцитарных нарушений в прогнозе исхода острого панкреатита / Б. Б. Бромберг, Н. А. Майстренко, Ю. Н. Шанин [и др.] // Регионарное кровообращение и микроциркуляция. – 2013. – № 12. – С. 4–10.

Нарушения в системе гемостаза у больных острым панкреатитом и ее коррекция / С. В. Авакимян, Г. К. Карипиди, В. А. Авакимян [и др.] // Кубанский науч. мед. вестн. – 2013. – № 7. – С. 38–40.

Abdalla S. E. Coagulation profile (PT, APTT, fibrinogen level and platelets count) in Sudanese patients with acute pancreatitis / S. E. Abdalla, H. T. Adam, E. A. Abdelgadir // Merit. Res. J. Microbiol. Biol. Sci. – 2013. – Vol. 2. – P. 1–4.

Activated protein C, an anticoagulant polypeptide, ameliorates severe acute pancreatitis via regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases / P. Chen, Y. Zhang, M. Qiao, Y. J. Yuan // Gastroenterol. – 2007. – Vol. 42. – P. 887–896.

Activated protein C improves the severity of severe acute pancreatitis via upregulating the expressions of endothelial cell protein C receptor and thrombomodulin // C. Ping, Z. Yongping, Q. Minmin [et al.] // Dig. Dis. Sci. – 2010. – Vol. 55. – P. 1599–1609.

Activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa) is associated with inflammatory markers in inflammatory bowel diseases: TAFIa level in patients with IBD / D. Owczarek, A. Undas, J. H. Foley [et al.] // Crohns Colitis. – 2011. – Vol. 6. – P. 13–20.

Acute pancreatitis: bench to the bedside / S. J. Pandol, A. K. Saluja, C. W. Imrie, P. A. Banks // Gastroenterology. – 2007. – Vol. 132. – P. 1127–1151.

Adams R. L. Review article: Coagulation cascade and therapeutics update: relevance to nephrology. Part 1: Overview of coagulation, thrombophilias and history of anticoagulants / R. L. Adams, R. J. Bird // Nephrology (Carlton). – 2009. – Vol. 14. – P. 462–470.

A double-blind, randomized, controlled study to explore the efficacy of rFVIIa on intraoperative blood loss and mortality in patients with severe acute pancreatitis / J. Lu, L. M. Liao, Y. X. Geng [et al.] // Thromb. Res. – 2014. – Vol. 133. – P. 574–578.

Alterations of platelet function and coagulation parameters during acute pancreatitis / E. Akbal, S. Demirci, E. Koçak [et al.] // Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis. – 2013. – Vol. 24. – P. 243–246.

Alterations of platelet function, number and indexes during acute pancreatitis / K. Mimidis, V. Papadopoulos, Kotsianidis [et al.] // Pancreatology. – 2004. – Vol. 4. – P. 22–27.

Antithrombin III in critically ill patients: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis / Afshari, J. Wetterslev, J. Brok, A. Moller // BMJ. – 2007. – Vol. 335. – P. 1248–1251.

Antithrombin III prevents cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats / S. Hagiwara, H. Iwasaka, C. Shingu [et al.] // Pancreas. – 2009. – Vol. 38. – P. 746–751.

APCAP-activated protein C in acute pancreatitis: a double-blind randomized human pilot trial / V. Pettilä, Kyhälä, M. L. Kylänpää [et al.] // Crit. Care. – 2010. – Vol. 14. – P. 139.

Applicability of disseminated intravascular coagulation parameters in the assessment of the severity of acute pancreatitis / K. Maeda, M. Hirota, A. Ichihara [et al.] // Pancreas. – 2006. – Vol. 32. – P. 87–92.

Babu B. I. Functional protein C levels during the early phase of clinical acute pancreatitis / B. I. Babu, K. Siriwardena // Pancreas. – 2010. – Vol. 39. – P. 1077– 1081.

Bajzar L. The profibrinolytic effect of activated protein C in clots formed from plasma is TAFI-dependent / Bajzar, M. E. Nesheim, P. B. Tracy // Blood. – 1996. – Vol. 88. – P. 2093–2100.

Bhatia M. Acute pancreatitis as a model of SIRS / M. Bhatia // Front. Biosci. – 2009. – Vol. 14. – P. 2042–2050.

Bhatia M. Treatment with antileukinate, a CXCR2 chemokine receptor antagonist, protects mice against acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury / M. Bhatia, A. Hegde // Regul. Pept. – 2007. – Vol. 138. – P. 40–48.

Bockman D. E. Ultrastructure of human acute pancreatitis / D. E. Bockman, M. Büchler, H. G. Beger // Int. J. Pancreatol. – 1986. – Vol. 1. – P. 141–153.

Bouma B. N. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, plasma procarboxypeptidase B, procarboxypeptidase R, procarboxypeptidase U) / B. N.Bouma, C. Meijers // J. Thromb. Haemost. – 2003. – Vol. 1. – 1566–1574.

Butenas S. Active tissue factor in blood? / Butenas, K. G. Mann // Nat. Med. – 2004. – Vol. 10. – 1155–1156.

Coagulative disorders in human acute pancreatitis: role for the D-dimer / T. Salomone, P. Tosi, Palareti [et al.] // Pancreas. – 2003. – Vol. 26. – P. 111– 116.

Conversion of antithrombin from an inhibitor of thrombin to a substrate with reduced heparin affinity and enhanced conformational stability by binding of a tetradecapeptide corresponding to the P1 to P14 region of the putative reactive bond loop of the inhibitor / I. Bjork, Ylinenjarvi, S. T. Olson, P. E. Bock // J. Biol. Chem. – 1992. – Vol. 267. – P. 1976–1982.

Critical role of CXC chemokines in endotoxemic liver injury in mice / X. Li, D. Klintman, Q. Liu [et al.] // J. Leukoc. Biol. – 2004. – Vol. 75. – P. 443–452.

Dabrowski A. The effect of platelet activating factor antagonist (BN 52021) on acute experimental pancreatitis with reference to multiorgan oxidative stress / Dabrowski, A. Gabryelewicz, L. Chyczewski // Int. J. Pancreatol. – 1995. – Vol. 17. – P. 173–180.

D-dimer as a marker of severity in patients with severe acute pancreatitis / L. Ke, H. B. Ni, Z. H. Tong [et al.] // J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Sci. – 2012. – Vol. 19. – P. 259–265.

D-dimer in acute pancreatitis: a new approach for an early assessment of organ failure / D. Radenkovic, D. Bajec, N. Ivancevic [et al.] // Pancreas. – 2009. – Vol. 38. – P. 655–660.

Decreased inflammation and improved survival with recombinant human activated protein C treatment in experimental acute pancreatitis / G. Alsfasser, A. L. Warshaw, S. Thayer [et al.] // Arch. Surg. – 2006. – Vol. 141. – P. 670–676.

Del Giudice L. A. The role of tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor in health and disease states / L. A. Del Giudice, G. A. White // J. Vet. Emerg. Crit. Care. – 2009. – Vol. 19. – P. 23–29.

de Stoppelaar S. F. The role of platelets in sepsis / S. F. de Stoppelaar, C. van Veer, T. van der Poll // Thromb. Haemost. – 2014. – Vol. 112. – P. 666–677.

Disorders of hemostasis during the surgical management of severe necrotizing pancreatitis / D. Radenkovic, D. Bajec, A. Karamarkovic [et al.] // Pancreas. – 2004. – Vol. 29. – P. 152–156.

Dual mechanism of integrin αIIbβ3 closure in procoagulant platelets / N. J. Mattheij, K. Gilio, R. van Kruchten [et al.] // J. Biol. Chem. – 2013. – Vol. 288. – P. 13325–13336.

Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis / G. R. Bernard, J. L. Vincent, P. F. Laterre [et al.] // N. Engl. J. Med. – 2001. – Vol. 344. – P. 699–709.

Elevation of plasma tissue factor levels in patients with severe acute pancreatitis / H. Sawa, T. Ueda, Y. Takeyama [et al.] // J. Gastroenterol. – 2006. – Vol. 41. – P. 575–581.

Ellery P. E. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor: then and now / P. E. Ellery, M. J. Adams // Semin. Thromb. Hemost. – 2014. – Vol. 40. – P. 881–886.

Endotoxin and thrombin elevate rodent endo­thelial cell protein C receptor mRNA levels and increase receptor shedding in vivo / J. M. Gu, Y. Katsuura, G. L. Ferrell [et al.] // Blood. – 2000. – Vol. 95. – P. 1687–1693.

Esmon C. T. Coagulation inhibitors and inflammation / C. T. Esmon // Biochem. Soc. Trans. – 2005. – Vol. 33 (Pt 2). – P. 401–405.

Esmon C. T. The endothelial cell protein C receptor / C. T. Esmon // Thromb. Haemost. – 2000. – Vol. 83. – P. 639–643.

Esmon C. T. The impact of the inflammatory response on coagulation / C. T. Esmon // Thromb. Res. – 2004. – Vol. 114. – P. 321–327.

Esmon C. T. The interactions between inflammation and coagulation / C. T. Esmon // Br. J. Haematol. – 2005. – Vol. 131. – P. 417–430.

Esmon C. T. The protein C pathway / C. T. Esmon // Crit. Care Med. – 2000. – Vol. 28. – P. 44–48.

Evaluation of recombinant platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase for reducing the incidence and severity of post-ERCP acute pancreatitis / S. Sherman, W. M. Alazmi, G. A. Lehman [et al.] // Gastrointest. Endosc. – 2009. – Vol. 69, 3 Pt 1. – P. 462–472.

Extended evaluation of recombinant human activated protein C United States Trial (ENHANCE US): a single-arm, phase 3B, multicenter study of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in severe sepsis / G. R. Bernard, B. D. Margolis, H. M.Shanies [et al.] // Chest. – 2004. – Vol. 125. – P. 2206–2216.

General mechanisms of coagulation and targets of anticoagulants (Section I). Position Paper of the ESC Working Group on Thrombosis – Task Force on Anticoagulants in Heart Disease / R. De Caterina, S. Husted, L. Wallentin [et al.] // Thromb. Haemost. – 2013. – Vol. 109. – P. 569–579.

Granger J. Acute pancreatitis: models, markers, and mediators / J. Granger, D. Remick // Shock. – 2005. – Vol. 24, Suppl. 1. – P. 45–51.

Griffin J. H. Protein C anticoagulant and cytoprotective pathways / J. H. Griffin, B. V. Zlokovic, L. O. Mosnier // Int. J. Hematol. – 2012. – Vol. 95. – P. 333– 345.

Hooper K. An updated view of hemostasis: mechanisms of hemostatic dysfunction associated with sepsis / K. Hooper, S. Bateman // J. Vet Emerg. Crit. Care. – 2005. – Vol. 15. – P. 83–91.

Ikezoe T. Thrombomodulin/activated protein C system in septic disseminated intravascular coagulation / T. Ikezoe // J. Intensive Care. – 2015. – Vol. 3. – 8 p.

Importance of platelet aggregation in patients with end-stage renal disease / Z. Martinović, N. Basić-Jukić, D. B. Pavlović, P. Kes // Acta Clin. Croat. – 2013. – Vol. 52. – P. 472–477.

Infection and inflammation and the coagulation system / M. Levi, T. T. Keller, E. van Gorp [et al.] // Cardiovasc. Res. – 2003. – Vol. 60. – P. 26–39.

Jurk K. Analysis of platelet function and dys­ function / K. Jurk // Hamostaseologie. – 2015. – Vol. 35. – P. 60–72.

Kubier A. Endogenous anticoagulants / A. Kubier, M. O’Brien // Top. Companion Anim. Med. – 2012. – Vol. 27. – P. 81–87.

Leung L. L. Regulation of tissue inflammation by thrombin-activatable carboxypeptidase B (or TAFI) / L. L. Leung, T. Nishimura, T. Myles // Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. – 2008. – Vol. 632. – P. 61–69.

Levi M. Coagulation in patients with severe sepsis / M. Levi, Tv. Poll // Semin. Thromb. Hemost. – 2015. – Vol. 41. – P. 9–15.

Levi M. Disseminated intravascular coagulation / M. Levi, H. ten Cate // N. Engl. J. Med. – 1999. – Vol. 341. – P. 586–592.

Lisman T. Activation and regulation of hemostasis in acute liver failure and acute pancreatitis / T. Lisman, R. J. Porte // Semin. Thromb. Hemost. – 2010. – Vol. 36. – P. 437–443.

Lwaleed B. A. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor: structure, biology and involvement in disease / B. A. Lwaleed, P. S. Bass // J. Pathol. – 2006. – Vol. 208. – P. 327–339.

Madsen J. J. Tissue factor activates allosteric networks in factor VIIa through structural and dynamic changes / J. J. Madsen, E. Persson, O. H .Olsen // J. Thromb. Haemost. – 2015. – Vol. 13. – P. 262–267.

Makhija R. Cytokine storm in acute pancreatitis / Makhija, A. N. Kingsnorth // J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg. – 2002. – Vol. 9. – P. 401–410.

Mean platelet volume as an indicator of disease severity in patients with acute pancreatitis / Y. Beyazit, Sayilir, S. Torun [et al.] // Clin. Res. Hepatol. Gas­ troenterol. – 2012. – Vol. 36. – P. 162–168.

Mechanism of tissue factor production by monocytes stimulated with neutrophil elastase / J. Kawata, M. Aoki, Y. Ishimaru [et al.] // Blood Cells Mol. Dis. – 2015. – Vol. 54. – P. 206–209.

Milestones and perspectives in coagulation and hemostasis / G. Lippi, E. J. Favaloro, M. Franchini, C. Guidi // Semin. Thromb. Hemost. – 2009. – Vol. 35. – P. 9–22.

Miranda C. J. Recombinant human activated protein C as a disease modifier in severe acute pancreatitis: systematic review of current evidence / J. Miranda, B. I. Babu, A. K. Siriwardena // Pancreatology. – 2012. – Vol. 12. – P. 119–123.

Mohan Rao L. V. Endothelial cell protein C receptor: a multiliganded and multifunctional receptor / V. Mohan Rao, C. T. Esmon, U. R. Pendurthi // Blood. – 2014. – Vol. 124. – P. 1553–1562.

Mondino A. uPA and uPAR in fibrinolysis, immunity and pathology / A. Mondino, F. Blasi // Trends Immunol. – 2004. – Vol. 25. – P. 450–455.

Monocytes regulate systemic coagulation and inflammation in abdominal sepsis / Y. Wang, O. Ö. Braun, Zhang [et al.] // Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol. – 2015. – Vol. 308. – P. 540–547.

Monroe D. M. Transmission of a procoagulant signal from tissue factor-bearing cell to platelets / M. Monroe, M. Hoffman, H. R. Roberts // Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis. – 1996. – Vol. 7. – P. 459–464.

Nesheim M. Thrombin and fibrinolysis / M. Nesheim // Chest. – 2003. – Vol. 124, Suppl. 3. – P. 33–39.

Of von Willebrand factor and platelets / Bryckaert, J. P. Rosa, C. V. Denis, P. J. Lenting // Cell. Mol. Life Sci. – 2015. – Vol. 72. – P. 307–326.

Persistent multiple organ microcirculatory disorders in severe acute pancreatitis: experimental findings and clinical implications / T. Foitzik, G. Eibl, Hotz [et al.] // Dig. Dis. Sci. – 2002. – Vol. 47. – P. 130–138.

Plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor as an indicator of inflammation and disease severity in acute pancreatitis / A. Sayilir, Y. Beyazita, Y. Yesil [et al.] // Clin. Res. Hepatol. Gastroenterol. – 2012. – Vol. 36. – P. 498–504.

Plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) antigen levels in diabetic foot ulcers / M. Erdogan, Solmaz, A. Canataroglu [et al.] // Endocrine. – 2010. – Vol. 37. – P. 449–454.

Plasma tissue factor pathway inhibitor levels in patients with acute pancreatitis / T. Yasuda, T. Ueda, K. Кamei [et al.] // J. Gastroenterol. – 2009. – Vol. 44. – 1071–1079.

Platelet activating factor antagonism reduces the systemic inflammatory response in a murine model of acute pancreatitis / J. S. Lane, K. E. Todd, B. Gloor [et al.] // J. Surg. Res. – 2001. – Vol. 99. – P. 365–370.

Platelet activation by human pancreatic fluid / R. A. Prinz, J. Fareed, A. Rock [et al.] // J. Surg. Res. – 1984. – Vol. 37. – P. 314–319.

Platelet activation in acute pancreatitis / J. Osada, U. Wereszczynska-Siemiatkowska, A. Dabrowski, M. I. Dabrowska // Pancreas. – 2012. – Vol. 8. – P. 1319–1324.

Prognostic significance of D-dimer, natural anticoagulants and routine coagulation parameters in acute pancreatitis / S. S. Badhal, S. Sharma, A. Saraya, A. K. Mukhopadhyay // Trop. Gastroenterol. – 2012. – Vol. 33. – P. 193–199.

Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 differentially regulate factor V expression from human platelets / M. Duvernay, S. Young, D. Gailani [et al.] // Mol. Pharmacol. – 2013. – Vol. 83. – P. 781–792.

Protective effect of antithrombin III in acute experimental­ pancreatitis in rats / W. K. Bleeker, J. Ag­ terberg, G. Rigter [et al.] // Dig. Dis. Sci. – 1992. – Vol. 37. – P. 280–285.

Protein C activation during the initial phase of experimental acute pancreatitis in the rabbit / L. H. Ottesen, E. M. Bladbjerg, M. Osman [et al.] // Dig. Surg. – 1999. – Vol. 16. – P. 486–495.

Protein C and acute inflammation: a clinical and biological perspective / S. C. Christiaans, B. M. Wagener, C. T. Esmon, J. F. Pittet // Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. – 2013. – Vol. 305. – P. 455–466.

Protein S and factor V in regulation of coagulation on platelet microparticles by activated protein C / S. Somajo, R. L. Koshiar, E. Norström, B. Dahlbäck // Thromb. Res. – 2014. – Vol. 134. – P. 144–152.

Ramnath R. D. Substance P treatment stimulates chemokine synthesis in pancreatic acinar cells via the activation of NF-kappaB / R. D. Ramnath, M. Bhatia // Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. – 2006. – Vol. 291. – P. 1113–1119.

Recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary vascular injury by inhibiting leukocyte activation / P. Enkhbaatar, K. Okajima, K. Murakami [et al.] // Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. – 2000. – Vol. 162. – P. 1752–1759.

Role of endogenous platelet-activating factor in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats: protective effects of a PAF-antagonist / K. Fujimura, Y. Kubota, M. Ogura [et al.] // J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. – 1992. – Vol. 7. – P. 199–202.

Role of platelet-activating factor in hemodynamic derangements in an acute rodent pancreatic model / G. Ais, A. Lopez-Farre, D. Gomez-Garre [et al.] // Gastroenterology. – 1992. – Vol. 102. – P. 181–187.

Role of platelets in experimental acute pancreatitis / A. Abdulla, D. Awla, H. Hartman [et al.] // Br. J. Surg. – 2011. – Vol. 98. – P. 93–103.

Roll, adhere, spread and contract: Structural mechanics of platelet function / S. Sorrentino, J. D. Studt, O. Medalia, K. Tanuj Sapra // Eur. J. Cell Biol. – 2015. – Vol. 94. – P. 129–138.

Schuliga M. The inflammatory actions of coagulant and fibrinolytic proteases in disease / M. Schuliga // Mediators Inflamm. – 2015. – 2015, ID 437695. – 9 p.

Sun J. Blockade of neurokinin-1 receptor attenuates CC and CXC chemokine production in experimental acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury / J. Sun, M. Bhatia // Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. – 2007. – Vol. 292. – P. 143–153.

TAFI and PAI-1 levels in human sepsis / S. Zeerleder, V. Schroeder, C. E. Hack [et al.] // Thromb. Res. – 2006. – Vol. 118. – P. 205–212.

The effect of activated protein C on experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis / L. Yamanel, M. R. Mas, B. Comert [et al.] // Crit. Care. – 2005. – Vol. 9. – P. 184–190.

The in vitro effect of fibrinogen, factor XIII and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor on clot formation and susceptibility to tissue plasminogen activato induced fibrinolysis in hemodilution model / B. Shenkman, T. Livnat, A. Lubetsky [et al.] // Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis. – 2012. – Vol. 23. – P. 370–378.

The linker connecting the two kringles plays a key role in prothrombin activation / N. Pozzi, Z. Chen, L. A. Pelc [et al.] // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. – 2014. – 111. – P. 7630–7635.

Therapy for acute pancreatitis with platelet-activating factor receptor antagonists / C. Chen, S. H. Xia, H. Chen, X. H. Li // World J. Gastroenterol. – 2008. – Vol. 14. – P. 4735–4738.

The role of platelets in leukocyte recruitment in chronic contact hypersensitivity induced by repeated elicitation / R. Tamagawa-Mineoka, N. Katoh, E. Ueda [et al.] // Am. J. Pathol. – 2007. – Vol. 170. – P. 2019–2029.

Thrombin generation in vitro and in vivo, and disturbed tissue factor regulation in patients with acute pancreatitis / O. K. Lindström, E. M. Tukiainen, M. L. Kylänpää [et al.] // Pancreatology. – 2011. – Vol. 11. – P. 557– 566.

Thrombin-induced interleukin 1beta synthesis in platelet suspensions: impact of contaminating leukocytes / D. Pillitteri, S. Bassus, K. Boller [et al.] // Platelets. – 2007. – Vol. 18. – P. 119–127.

Tissue factor in predicted severe acute pan­ creatitis / E. Andersson, J. Axelsson, G. Eckerwall [et al.] // World J. Gastroenterol. – 2010. – Vol. 16. – P. 6128–6134.

Treatment with anti-factor VIIa in acute pancreatitis in rats: blocking both coagulation and inflammation? / E. Andersson, J. Axelsson, L. C. Pedersen [et al.] // Scand. J. Gastroenterol. – 2007. – Vol. 42. – P. 765–770.

Upregulated but insufficient generation of activated protein C is associated with development of multiorgan failure in severe acute pancreatitis / O. Lindstrom, L. Kylanpaa, P. Mentula [et al.] // Crit. Care. – 2006. – Vol. 10. – P. 16.

Use of activated protein C has no avail in the early phase of acute pancreatitis / S. Akay, O. Ozutemiz, C. Yenisey [et al.] // HPB. – 2008. – Vol. 10. – P. 459–463.

Utility of clot formation and lysis assay to monitor global coagulation state of patients with severe acute pancreatitis / R. Zhu, S. Wei, C. Wu [et al.] // Dig. Dis. Sci. – 2012. – Vol. 57. – P. 1399–1403.

Vadivel K. Structural biology of factor VIIa/tissue factor initiated coagulation / K. Vadivel, S. P. Bajaj // Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed). – 2012. – Vol. 17. – P. 2476–2494.

Vascular endothelial injury and apoptosis in rats with severe acute pancreatitis / N. Ge, Q. Xia, Z. Yang [et al.] // Gastroenterol. Res. Pract. – 2015. – ID 235017. – 6 p.

Webster N. R. Inflammation and the coagulation system / N. R. Webster // Br. J. Anesth. – 2002. – Vol. 89. – P. 216–220.

Wright K. M. Regulation of monocyte chemokine and MMP-9 secretion by proinflammatory cytokines in tuberculous osteomyelitis / K. M. Wright, J. S. Friedland // Leukoc. Biol. – 2004. – Vol. 75. – P. 1086–1092.

Yan S. L. Platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregation elicited in experimental colitis are mediated by interleukin-6 / S. L. Yan, J. Russell, D. N. Granger // Inflamm. Bowel Dis. – 2014. – Vol. 20. – P. 353–362.