Fibrosis formation is a dynamic process during which the formation of an extracellular matrix takes place in interstitial spaces and areas where the main components of exocrine pancreatic function (acinar cells) are damaged. According to studies, the biggest role in the formation of pancreatic fibrosis upon chronic pancreatitis is played by various types of effector cells, such as fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and fibrocytes, while fibroblasts and myofibroblasts are the key fibrosis cells responsible for the secretion of extracellular matrix. Activated pancreatic stellate cells become main components of fibrosis formation in patients with chronic pancreatitis, synthesizing transforming growth factor-β, fibroblast growth factor, which leads to enhanced synthesis of extracellular matrix.
The presented review highlights molecular mechanisms (Rho-kinase, mitogen-activating protein kinase, transforming growth factor-β, associated with the protein encoded by SMAD in humans, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase), which play an important role in the activation of pancreatic stellate cells and launching the phenomenon of pancreatic fibrogenesis.
The presented data opens up prospects for the development of diagnostic areas with the search for new markers for the diagnosis of acute and chronic pancreatitis along with development of new therapeutic options for the pathogenetic therapy of patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis based on the results obtained.
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